March 27, 2016 in Moscow Jurij Kofner, chairman of the Eurasian Movement of Russia presented a report “Russia’s New Ideology”. The meeting was attended by representatives of the Movement’s leadership and experts. The reports theses are published below:
Russia’s New Ideology
1. The concept of “Russia-Eurasia”
- It gives the name of the Eurasian movement.
- A separate, distinctive civilization (territory approx. of the former Russian Empire).
- Combines cultureal influences not only from East and West, but moreover from four cardinal directions: 1. Rus’ (North), 2. Byzantium (South), 3. Horde (East), 4. Europe (West).
2. Ideological sources Movement
- Classical Eurasianism (Nikolay Troubetzkoy, Peter Savitsky, etc.).
- Russian Orthodox social thought (Slavophiles, cosmists, Ivan Ilyin, Nikolai Berdyaev, and others).
- Modern patriotic thinkers (Alexander Zinoviev, Aleksandr Panarin).
- Pragmatic Eurasianism (notably Vladimir Putin and Nursultan Nazarbayev).
- Foreign philosophers and geopolitics (eg. Hauke Ritz, Dimitrios Kisoudis).
3. Russia and Europe (I)
The history of Russia can be divided into four distinct periods: 1. The Russian kingdom (blossoming of national identity) 2. Russian Empire (period of westernization which results in gap between upper and lower layers of Russian culture), 3. USSR (dictate of Western ideology – Bolshevism, but non-Western policy of Bolvshevics in many fields of foreign and domestic policy), 4. Russian Federation (extreme Westernization in the 90’s, but revival of national identity beginning from Vladimir Putin’s third term).
- “Byzantism” as an allied to Eurasianism view, according to which: Western Europe is the successor to Western Rome and Russia-Eurasia is the successor to Eastern Rome. Those are the philosophical foundations for the construction of a common space from Lisbon to Vladivostok.
4. Modern, postmodern and “neomodern” age
Premodern age (Middle Ages):
- Christianity as he main (only) political theory and the common basis of Europe and Russia.
- Feudal attachment people, rigid hierarchy.
Modern age (18th century – 20th century):
- The Age of Modernism begins with the European Enlightenment.
- Enlightenment – the process of secularization of (de-Christianization) of three main concepts of Christianity: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. Slogan of the French Revolution.
- Those became the three fundamental political theories of modernity: 1pt. Liberalism/capitalism (Freedom), 2pt. Communism/socialism (Equality), 3pt. Nationalism/conservatism (Fraternity).
- The subject of liberalism – the individual, the subject of communism – class, the subject of nationalism – nation.
- Due to the process of westernization (Western imperialism and colonialism) those three political theories of modernity began to penetrate into the consciousness of the rest of humanity. Due to the reforms of Peter the Great the three political theories were picked up by the Russian intelligentsia.
- The climax of modernity was in the first half of the 20th century before the Second World War: 1pt dominated in the West, 3p in Central Europe (Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany), 2pt in Russia (Soviet Union).
Postmodern age (since the second half of the 20th century):
- In the second half of the 20th century the global West passes from modernity to postmodernity (main date – 1968).
Frankfurt School, postructuralism.
- Degeneration and dissolution of the three political theories of moderny, emphasis is put on new elements (e.g. New Left cares more about gay rights and environmentalism, than about anti-imperialism and social equality. Liberalism has perverted to post-liberalism).
- Not only secularization, but a complete denial of religious values (militant atheism).
- Complete denial of collective identities (family, nation, religion) and über-individualism (eg. “gender madness”).
- Unipolar hegemony under the dictate of the United States.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union Russia has emerged from modernity, but never really passed into the postmodern age. During the rakish 1990’s Russia shortly experiende the true nature of postmodernism. During Putin’s presidency Russia began to live in a parallel to the West reality: “neomodernity”. Why? 1. The political regime in the Soviet Union did not allow a transition to the postmodern age. 2. The religious and traditional revival of Russia-Eurasia after 70 years of communist atheism. A perfect example of altermodernism in Russia – the celebration May 9th Victory Day.
- The rejection of the postmodernism, but not the return to modernism
- Combination of elements of the three political theories of the modern age
- Approval of collective identities
- Approval religious values
5. The fourth political theory (4pt)
- 4pt is the political theory of neomodernism
- Eurasianism is the Russian version of the 4pt
The metaphysical mission of the Fourth political theory, i.e. Russia’s Eurasianists: The spiritualization (de-secularization) of the three concepts of modernity: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity (We need to return God into these concepts), i.e. based on traditional religious values we need to select the best elements from 1pt. capitalism/liberalism, 2pt. communism/socialism and 3pt. conservatism/nationalism.
- The subject of the Fourth political theory is “Symphonic personality” (a term coined by the Eurasianist thinkers Peter Savitsky and Lev Karsavin), i.e. the holistic trinity of “personality (soul as a reflection of God) – the peoples (culture and religion) – God (ethics).”
6. Russia and Europe (II)
- Modern Russian Eurasianism (4pt) is a phenomenon known by Western analysts as “Putinism”, i.e. the philosophical roots of Vladimir Putin’s domestic and foreign policy.
- In this view the tasks of the modern Eurasianists are: 1. Ensuring the sovereignty of Russia (cultural, economic, political); 2. Bringing to the West the Fourth Political Theory (spiritualized concepts of Freedom, Equality, Fraternity) and the liberation of Europe from the US occupation with the help of European political forces that also follow the Fourth politicial theory. Creating a continental alliance from Lisbon to Vladivostok based on traditional Christian values (Greater Europe); 3. The formation of a “4pt Internationale”.
7. Principles of the Eurasianists
- Always make decisions on the basis of two criteria: 1. moral values of traditional religions, 2. extrapolation of thought of classical Eurasianism and Russian Orthodox social philosophy (what would they do/say today).
- Pragmatism and professionalism (We do not need “political soldiers”, we need economists, lawyers, engineers. First of all, we need experts in the field of the Eurasian economic integration).
- Evolution, not revolution! (gradualism).
- Respect: 1. Respect for political opponents, 2. Alliances with close political forces, 3. Respect for the national feelings and interests of the Eurasian Economic Union’s member states (full respect for national sovereignty, territorial integrity, political regime, culture, voluntarity of integration, and so on).
8. Eurasianist policy in the field of nationalities
- Ethnic pluralism (as the alternative to multiculturalism).
- Identariansim: 3 levels of identity: 1. Peoples (e.g. Tatars), 2. Nation (e.g. Russian Federation), 3. Civilization (e.g. Eurasian Union, pan-Eurasian patriotism).
- Federalism / regionalism.
- Transfer of the capital of Russia behind the Urals.
9. Eurasianist policy in the field of economy
- Solidarism (non-class approach, employee stakeholding)
- Mixed economy (combination of plan to free market policies)
- Islamic banking
- Modernization without Westernization, reindustrialization of Russia (!)
10. Eurasianist policy in the field of democracy
- Explore the possibility of replacing the Western parliamentary party system with a hierarchical system of soviets (demotia). Three national-level councils: 1. The Federation Soviet, 2. The Soviet of Nationalities, 3. The Soviet of Professions (engineers, trade unionists, scientists, artist, etc.).
- Establishment of a Russian national idea on the basis of Eurasianism (ideocracy).
11. Eurasianist policy in the field of culture
- Archeofuturism, i.e. the development of modern Russian culture on the basis of the continuity of traditions and religious values).
- Cultural identity (de-Westernization).
12. Eurasianist foreign policy
- Promotion of Eurasian integration through public diplomacy and soft power.
- Support of a multipolar wold order.
Center for Continental Cooperation